PAG/Cbp suppression reveals a contribution of CTLA-4 to setting the activation threshold in T cells
© Smida et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2013
Received: 29 October 2012
Accepted: 3 April 2013
Published: 19 April 2013
PAG/Cbp represents a ubiquitous mechanism for regulating Src family kinases by recruiting Csk to the plasma membrane, thereby controlling cellular activation. Since Src kinases are known oncogenes, we used RNA interference in primary human T cells to test whether the loss of PAG resulted in lymphocyte transformation.
PAG-depletion enhanced Src kinase activity and augmented proximal T-cell receptor signaling; exactly the phenotype expected for loss of this negative regulator. Surprisingly, rather than becoming hyper-proliferative, PAG-suppressed T cells became unresponsive. This was mediated by a Fyn-dependent hyper-phosphorylation of the inhibitory receptor CTLA-4, which recruited the protein tyrosine phosphatase Shp-1 to lipid rafts. Co-suppression of CTLA-4 abrogates this inhibition and restores proliferation to T cells.
We have identified a fail-safe mechanism as well as a novel contribution of CTLA-4 to setting the activation threshold in T cells.
KeywordsHuman T cells Protein kinases Cell activation Tolerance
T cells orchestrate the adaptive immune response. However, to fulfill this function they must first be activated by specific antigenic peptides presented by MHC molecules. How T cells are able to distinguish self antigens from foreign is an important question, as inappropriate activation may lead to autoimmunity. It was long held that self-reactive T cells are deleted in the thymus. However, the presence of mechanisms that induce peripheral tolerance, as well as the observation that both peripheral conventional and regulatory T cells can be self-reactive has challenged this view. Although it is now accepted that autoreactive T cells escape the thymus , it remains unclear how the threshold for activation is set to ensure that these potentially destructive cells remain quiescent. The activation threshold for T cells appears to be determined by a number of TCR-induced proximal feedback loops . One such loop involves the tight control over the activation of Src family kinases, Lck and Fyn , by the phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), also known as the Csk binding protein (Cbp); a transmembrane adaptor protein [hereafter referred to as PAG].
The primary function of PAG appears to be recruiting the C-terminal Src kinase (Csk) to the plasma membrane, where Csk then phosphorylates the inhibitory tyrosines located near to the carboxy terminus of the Src kinases [4–6]. The phosphorylated C-terminus binds intramolecularly to the SH2 domain leading to the formation of a closed-inactive conformation [7–9]. In agreement with this mechanism, PAG over-expression inhibits T-cell activation [4, 10].
As PAG, Csk, and the Src kinases are all ubiquitously expressed proteins, this regulatory circuit may be important in many cellular systems. Indeed, PAG has been demonstrated to regulate cellular transformation. In Theileria-transformed B cells, the loss of PAG was shown to positively correlate with proliferation . Whereas in B-cell Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma (B-NHL) PAG contributes to transformation by maintaining Lyn in an open conformation . Recently, PAG was also described as a tumor suppressor, due to its ability to bind and thereby sequester Src kinases away from their substrates . However, the exact role of PAG in regulating transformation appears to be context-dependent, as PAG has been demonstrated to be absent or present in a number of lymphomas .
In addition to inhibiting Src kinases, we have also shown that PAG negatively regulates Ras . PAG also restricts the mobility of lipid rafts within the membrane via its binding to the cytoskeletal adaptor EBP-50 [16, 17]. Since the data suggest that PAG is an important negative regulator, a Pag1 knockout was predicted to have a severe phenotype, as the Csk knockout is embryonic lethal [18, 19]. However, as Pag1 knockout mice possess no apparent defects, the importance of PAG as a negative regulator has been questioned [20, 21]. Our investigation of these mice revealed that a constitutive Pag1 knockout develops a compensatory mechanism , suggesting that the use of conventional knockout mice is not the best strategy to investigate PAG function. Therefore to address whether the loss of PAG would result in lymphocyte transformation, we used RNA inhibition to investigate PAG function in primary human T cells.
As the suppression of murine PAG expression by siRNA was previously reported in fibroblasts , we utilized the corresponding RNA-sequences to target human PAG [15, 24]. We found that PAG suppression in human T cells led to enhanced Src kinase activity, which was reflected by increased phosphorylation of the activatory tyrosine. Additionally, we detected both enhanced basal tyrosine phosphorylation, as well as an enhanced TCR-induced phosphorylation, including the activation of key proteins such as ZAP-70 and PLCγ1. However despite showing enhanced proximal signaling, the proliferation of PAG-deficient cells was dramatically reduced. Thus, it appears that other negative regulatory feedback loops have been activated that induced a state of unresponsiveness within these T cells. We further show that this involves a negative feedback loop via the inhibitory receptor CTLA-4, which recruits the phosphatase Shp1, and, in this way, prevents strong proximal signals from being translated into enhanced T-cell activation.
PAG suppression enhances proximal signaling in human T cells
PAG suppression induces T-cell unresponsiveness
T-cell unresponsiveness is not due to cell-cycle arrest or protein degradation
A number of mechanisms are known that lead to T-cell unresponsiveness. One such mechanism is the induction of cellular senescence via p53 activation, which induces cell-cycle arrest and thereby prevents activated oncogenes from inducing tumorigenesis . We reasoned that since both Src kinases and Ras are known oncogenes and we observe enhanced activity in these enzymes, cell-cycle arrest might be induced. However, we observed neither an increase in the level of active p53, nor a decrease in pFOXO, which regulates cell cycle progression via p27. Moreover, we found reduced expression of the cell cycle inhibitors p21 and p53 in the nuclear extracts of PAG-suppressed cells (Additional file 5: Figure S6A), leaving us to conclude that an induction of cell-cycle arrest was not the mechanism responsible for unresponsiveness.
Alternatively, we hypothesized that the increased Src kinase activity in PAG-knockdown cells might also lead to the activation of other negative regulators that could suppress signaling. Indeed, when we extended our kinetic analysis of ZAP-70 and PLCγ activation (Figure 3C), we observed that control cells demonstrated a sustained activation, particularly of PLCγ (Additional file 6: Figure S5). In contrast, PAG-suppressed cells initially showed an enhanced response (similar to that seen in Figures 1B and 2A) that was abruptly truncated suggesting that a negative regulatory pathway had indeed been activated.
As Fyn is thought to induce negative regulatory pathways in T cells , we investigated a known substrate of Fyn, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Cbl. Within T cells, Cbl is known to target several important signaling components for degradation, which results in an abrogation of T-cell signaling. Although we observed an increase in phospho-Cbl upon PAG down-regulation, we saw no alteration in the expression of Lck or ZAP-70, two well characterized Cbl substrates [25, 28] (Additional file 5: Figure S6B), suggesting that this mechanism was also not enabled.
PAG suppression induces CTLA-4 hyper-phosphorylation and Shp-1 recruitment
One of the best characterized negative regulators of T cells is the co-stimulatory molecule CTLA-4 (cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4). The endocytic adaptor AP-1 sequesters CTLA-4 within the Golgi. However, upon T-cell activation, tyrosine phosphorylation of CTLA-4 displaces AP-1, resulting in an increased surface expression and the subsequent recruitment of inhibitory molecules, such as the phosphatases Shp-2 and/or PP2A (reviewed in [29–31]).
Co-suppression of CTLA-4 restores proliferation in PAG-suppressed cells
A similar phenotype of enhanced Src kinase activity was observed upon Csk suppression . However, the secretion of IL-2 was enhanced in primary human T cells rather than inhibited, as reported here. The differences observed between PAG and Csk downregulation may be due to Csk-independent functions of PAG for Src kinase regulation. For Src, an SH2-domain-dependent interaction with PAG was shown, which resulted in the sequestration of Src into lipid rafts away from non-raft Src substrates, inhibition of downstream activation of MEK, ERK and Akt and suppression of Src-mediated oncogenic transformation in the absence of Csk. Similarly, in these Csk−/− cells a palmitoylation mutant of Fyn showed redistribution away from lipid rafts and enhanced kinase activity, demonstrating that lipid raft localisation inhibits Fyn activity in the absence of Csk and independent of the presence of the negative-regulatory tyrosine Y529 . Our results here show that downregulation of PAG releases this inhibition. Despite unchanged raft-association of Fyn its activity is now increased. Notably, despite the enhancement of proximal TCR signaling, PAG suppression had no effect upon ERK activation or calcium-flux (Additional file 9: Figure S9). This may be due to the fact that activation of these molecules is already maximal and therefore cannot be further enhanced or that there is a spatial segregation of activators and effectors. However, despite our inability to influence these molecules, PAG-suppressed T cells still became unresponsive due to a hyper-phosphorylation of CTLA-4. Here, we show for the first time that Fyn is largely responsible for CTLA-4 phosphorylation and function in primary T cells. These observations are supported by previous studies using co-expression to show that Fyn phosphorylates CTLA-4 [35–37] and also support the idea that Fyn primarily contributes to negative regulation in T cells .
One function of CTLA-4 is to reverse the TCR-induced stop signal . In line with this activity, we previously reported that PAG-suppression resulted in both an enhanced spontaneous and specific migration of T cells .
To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating Shp-1 recruitment to CTLA-4. This fits with previous observations that CTLA-4 functions from the lipid rafts [32–34] and targeting Shp-1 to the rafts blocks T-cell activation . In this context, Shp-1 could induce unresponsiveness by inactivating key signaling molecules such as Lck, ZAP-70, and PLCγ. Indeed, CTLA-4 has previously been shown to inhibit phosphorylation of ZAP-70 at Y319  and in the absence of CTLA-4 we observe enhanced phosphorylation of both ZAP70 and PLCγ (Figure 5C and Additional file 8: Figure S8). Similarly, the phosphorylation of ZAP-70 and PLCγ was abruptly truncated following activation of PAG-suppressed cells (Figure 3C). Previously, Shp-1 was shown to bind to phosphorylated peptides corresponding to the cytoplasmic tail of CTLA-4 [42, 43], however an involvement of Shp-1 was ruled out, as CTLA-4 was shown to be inhibitory in moth-eaten mice [44, 45]. Given that CTLA-4 binds Shp-2 in mice , one could attribute this differential recruitment to either redundancy or species-specific differences, as shown for LAIR-1 (leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1) [47, 48].
Despite the hyper-phosphorylation of CTLA-4, we observed no detectable increase in the levels of surface CTLA-4 expression (Figure 4A). This was somewhat surprising, as CTLA-4 expression should be regulated by phosphorylation of the YVKM motif within the cytoplasmic tail, which prevents binding of AP-2 and thereby blocks endocytosis of the receptor [reviewed in [29–31]. However, Hu et al. (2001) have previously shown that constitutively active Lck, or Fyn, phosphorylate CTLA-4 within the Golgi . This supports our hypothesis that pCTLA-4 may not need to be at the surface to function and suggests that additional mechanisms besides phosphorylation may regulate surface expression. An alternative interpretation may be that the enhanced phosphorylation of CTLA4 we observe also increases the rate of internalization, such that there is no observable change in surface expression.
While co-stimulation of CTLA-4 is known to inhibit T-cell activation, it is interesting to consider that the inhibitory effect of CTLA-4 observed here is independent of ligand, as the cells were stimulated with plate-bound antibody and not antigen presenting cells. This is in agreement with previous reports demonstrating ligand-independent inhibitory functions for CTLA-4. First, mice express a ligand-independent isoform of CTLA-4 that generates inhibitory signals [49, 50]. Additionally, the expression of a ligand-nonbinding CTLA-4 was sufficient to inhibit T-cell proliferation and block cytokine production on an otherwise CTLA-4-deficient background . Also, recent reports have shown that the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 (ctCTLA-4) alone is sufficient to inhibit T-cell activation and prevent autoimmunity [52–54]. Taken together, these studies suggest that competing with CD28 for ligand is only one of several inhibitory mechanisms utilized by CTLA-4 and support the hypothesis that there is an intrinsic inhibitory nature to CTLA-4. Since the majority of CTLA-4 is intracellular, with only a minor fraction of molecules (~10%) appearing on the cell surface , we consider it likely that these molecules also have a function. The inhibitory nature of CTLA-4 is further supported by the hyper-proliferative capacity of CTLA-4-suppressed T cells to plate-bound antibody (Figure 5), which agrees with previous reports showing that blocking CTLA-4 enhances proliferation [56, 57]. This mechanism is supported by studies demonstrating the presence of intracellular CTLA-4 in resting primary human T cells [41, 58]. Taken together, the data suggest that the mere presence of CTLA-4 is inhibitory to T cells, as was recently shown for PD-1 . A similar inhibitory role has been proposed for Shp-1 [44, 60], and a possible contribution of CTLA-4 to setting the activation threshold within T cells has been suggested for primed TCR-transgenic cells . This intrinsic inhibitory mechanism may also contribute to the unresponsive nature of regulatory T cells, which constitutively express CTLA-4 [60, 62].
We demonstrate that PAG is indeed a negative regulator in T cells and show that the loss of PAG alone is not sufficient to induce lymphocyte transformation. Instead, the enhanced Src kinase activity induced by the loss of PAG triggers an auxiliary negative feedback loop involving CTLA-4. Thus, it appears that multiple mechanisms have evolved to ensure a tight regulation of T-cells. Indeed, the mechanism identified here may explain T-cell unresponsiveness in older mice, which show decreased PAG expression, enhanced proximal signaling, and defective proliferation . Further analysis has also shown that aged mice upregulate the expression of inhibitory co-stimulatory molecules, such as CTLA-4 and PD-1 . The importance of this mechanism for inducing T-cell unresponsiveness may now take on a broader context, as PAG expression has been shown to be suppressed by epigenetic histone modification . Indeed, data generated by the Immunological Genome project [http://www.immgen.org] suggest that within the population of αβ T cells, Pag1 expression is lowest in tumor-infiltrating CD8+ and splenic CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, both of which are CTLA-4+.
The loss of PAG has also revealed a novel contribution of CTLA-4 to setting the activation threshold within T cells. This suggests that in addition to lacking functional regulatory T cells, the CTLA-4 knockout mice also possess a lower threshold for activation, which may contribute to the hyper-proliferative syndrome that leads to autoimmunity in these mice [29, 30, 46]. Indeed in vitro stimulation of T cells from Ctla4-deficient mice showed an enhanced expression of CD69 per cell  indicative of stronger TCR signaling.
Antibodies and reagents
The following hybridoma supernatants were produced within our Institute: mouse anti-phosphotyrosine (clone 4G10), mouse anti-CD3ε (clones OKT-3 (IgG) and MEM-92 (IgM)), mouse anti-TCRβ (clone C305, IgM), mouse anti-CD28 (clone 248.23.2, IgM), and mouse anti-PAG (clone MEM-255). Mouse anti-Fyn-02 was kindly provided by Dr. Vaclav Horejsi. Rabbit anti-phospho-Src (pY418), mouse anti-Lck (3A5), rabbit anti-Lck and rabbit anti-Fyn were purchased from BioSource, mouse anti-Pan-Ras (Ab-4) from Oncogene, mouse anti-RasGAP (B4F8), mouse anti-human CTLA-4 (BNI3), hamster anti-mouse CTLA-4 (UC10-4 F10-11), anti-mouse CD8 (196), anti-mouse CD25 (7D4), anti-mouse CD44 (IM7), anti-mouse CD62L (MEL14), anti-mouse IFNγ (AN18.17.24) were from BD Biosciences, goat anti-CTLA-4 (C-19), rabbit anti-Shp1 (C19), mouse anti-Shp2 (B1), rabbit anti-GFP/YFP (FL), and rabbit anti-Csk (C20) from Santa Cruz. Phospho-specific antibodies against p-ZAP70 (pY319) and p-PLCγ1 (pY783) were obtained from Cell Signaling Technology. Secondary antibodies goat-anti-mouse-HRP and goat-anti-rabbit-HRP were obtained from Dianova, donkey-anti-goat-HRP from Santa Cruz. Phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) and N-dodecyl β-D-maltoside (lauryl maltoside (LM)) were purchased from Calbiochem. Igepal (Nonidet P-40 (NP-40)), ionomycin, glutathione-sepharose, GDP and mouse anti-β-actin (AC-15) were from Sigma. Human recombinant interleukin 2 (IL-2) was purchased from Tebu-bio. The PAG-YFP vector was kindly provided by Dr. Shigeyuki Nada.
Approval for these studies was obtained from the Ethics Committee of the Medical Faculty at the Otto-von-Guericke University, Magdeburg, Germany. Informed written consent was obtained in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. Human T cells were prepared as previously described . The Jurkat E6.1 T cell line was cultured as described .
Fyn knockout mice were kindly provided by Dr. Rose Zamoyska and maintained under pathogen-free conditions. Experiments were performed according to the guidelines of the state of Sachsen-Anhalt. Splenic T cells were purified by non-T cell depletion using a Pan T cell isolation Kit [Miltenyi Biotec]. Purified T cells were cultured for three days on 24-well-plates coated with anti-CD3 (2C11; 10 μg/ml) plus anti-CD28 (1 μg/ml) [both BD]. 20x106 mouse T cells were used for immunoprecipitation with hamster anti-mouse CTLA-4 as described for human T cells below.
Alternatively, crosslinking of CTLA-4 (CD152) on CD8 cells was performed using latex microspheres coated with antibodies. In brief, 107 microspheres/ml were suspended in PBS with CD3 (0.75 μg/ml), CD28 (2.5 μg/ml), CTLA-4 or a hamster control antibody (A19-3, 8 μg/ml) and incubated for 1 h at 37°C, followed by washing in PBS and blocking with complete media. CD8 T cells (1.5x106/ml) were stimulated at a ratio of 1:1 with antibody-coupled microspheres. Specificity of crosslinking of CD152 with antibody-coupled microspheres was controlled by stimulating naive CD8 T cells (CD8+ CD62Lhigh) of C57BL/6 OT-1 CTLA4−/− mice with CD3, CD28, and CTLA-4 or CD3, CD28, and isotype-coupled microspheres for 2d followed by analyzing expression of IFNγ as described below.
For PAG siRNA, the human sequence 5′ GCGAUACAGACUCUCAACATT 3′ corresponding to Shima et al.  was either used as RNA oligos [Invitrogen] in primary human T cells or cloned as shRNA into the vector pCMS3-EGFP for Jurkat T cells. All constructs were sequenced to ensure integrity. To rule out off-target effects of our PAG siRNA oligonucleotide, some experiments were repeated with an siGENOME SMARTpool of 4 siRNAs purchased from Thermo Scientific. For CTLA-4 downregulation, a STEALTH pool of three siRNAs [Invitrogen] was used.
For transfection, primary human T-cells (8x106) were washed with PBS, resuspended in 200 μl Optimem [Invitrogen] and transfected with siRNA in a 4 mm cuvette [BioRad] with a square-wave pulse using a Genepulser X-cell [BioRad] at 1000 V, 0.5 ms, 2 pulses, gap between pulses 5 s. Jurkat T cells were electroporated with 30 μg DNA in a 4 mm cuvette [BioRad] using Gene Pulser II [BioRad] at 210 V, 950 μF. Protein expression was monitored by Western blotting to determine the time required for optimal suppression.
Primary human T cells were washed once with RPMI medium without FBS and stimulated with CD3 (MEM-92) plus CD28 antibody supernatants for indicated times at 37°C (100 μl per 5x106 cells). Stimulation was stopped with 1 ml ice-cold TBS and the cells lysed immediately. Jurkat T cells were stimulated in the same way with anti-TCR (C305) plus anti-CD28 supernatants.
Immunoprecipitation and western blotting
Cell lysates were prepared as previously described . For CTLA-4 immunoprecipitation, 10x106 activated T cells were lysed in 250 μl lysis buffer and immunoprecipitated with 1 mg/ml BSA, CTLA-4 antibody, and protein A sepharose for 2–18 h with rotation at 4°C as described .
In vitrokinase assay
Cells (10x106/sample) were lysed and immunoprecipitated with either Fyn-02 or rabbit anti-Lck and Protein A-Sepharose. In vitro kinase assays were performed as previously described .
The incorporation of [3H]-thymidine (0.3 μCi/well, specific activity 50 Ci/mmol) [PerkinElmer] at the end of the three day stimulation was measured by liquid scintillation as previously described .
Transfected primary human T cells were stimulated on a 24-well-plate coated with anti-CD3 or anti-CD3 plus anti-CD28 for indicated time, washed once with PBS and stained with CD25-FITC, FasL-PE or CTLA-4-PE [all BD] for 20 min on ice. After one wash with cold PBS, samples were analyzed on a FACS Calibur using the Cell Quest Pro software [BD].
For intracellular IL-2 staining, Brefeldin A [Calbiochem] was added at 1 μg/ml for the last 6 hours of culture and the cells were stained with IL-2-PE [Miltenyi Biotec] using the Inside Stain Kit [Miltenyi Biotec] according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
The activated caspase 3 within the stimulated cells was detected with the Caspase-3 Detection Kit [Calbiochem] according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Intracellular staining of murine T cells for IFNγ production was performed using fixed cells. Fixation was performed by incubation of cells in 2% Formaldehyde (Merck) diluted in PBS for 20 min on ice. Permeabilization was achieved using 0.5% Saponin (Sigma) diluted in PBS/BSA.
Cell apoptosis was determined using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit [Bender MedSystems] according to the manufacturer’s instructions.
Sucrose gradient centrifugation
Lipid raft fractionation was performed as previously described .
Films were scanned with an Epson Perfection 4990 Photo scanner and the optical density determined using Kodak 1D 3.6 software. The density of the band of interest was normalized using the loading control to the value in the control cells.
All statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism software. Comparison of two samples was performed using two-tailed Student’s t-test. One sample t-tests were used where indicated. Multiple samples were compared by a one-way ANOVA combined with a Tukey’s Multiple Comparison Post Test.
Csk binding protein
C-terminal Src kinase
Cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen 4
Extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2
GTPase activating protein
Linker for activation of T cells
Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains
Phospholipase C gamma
Src homology phosphatase-1/2
Small hairpin RNA
Small inhibitory RNA
T cell receptor
Yellow fluorescent protein
Zeta-associated protein of 70 kDa.
The authors would like to thank Dr Tilo Beyer for critical reading of the manuscript, Katja Ehrecke and Anja Polanetzki for technical assistance, and Dr. Barbara Bröker for providing CTLA-4 transfected cell lysate. We also thank the following colleagues for providing hybridomas: Drs. Art Weiss [C305] and Vaclav Horejsi [MEM-92 and MEM-255].
This work was supported in part by grants from the German Research Society (DFG) SFB-854 [JL 1031/1-3] and [Br1860/6], the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) FOR-SYS program , the State of Sachsen-Anhalt (Dynamic Systems) [XD3639HP/0306], and the European Union 7th Frame Program (SYBILLA) [HEALTH-F4-2008-201106].
- Walker LS, Abbas AK: The enemy within: keeping self-reactive T cells at bay in the periphery. Nat Rev Immunol. 2002, 2: 11-19. 10.1038/nri701.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Acuto O, Bartolo VD, Michel F: Tailoring T-cell receptor signals by proximal negative feedback mechanisms. Nat Rev Immunol. 2008, 8: 699-712. 10.1038/nri2397.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Palacios EH, Weiss A: Function of the Src-family kinases, Lck and Fyn, in T-cell development and activation. Oncogene. 2004, 23: 7990-8000. 10.1038/sj.onc.1208074.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brdicka T, Pavlistová D, Leo A, Bruyns E, Korínek V, Angelisová P: Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains (PAG), a novel ubiquitously expressed transmembrane adaptor protein, binds the protein tyrosine kinase csk and is involved in regulation of T cell activation. J Exp Med. 2000, 191: 1591-1604. 10.1084/jem.191.9.1591.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kawabuchi M, Satomi Y, Takao T, Shimonishi Y, Nada S, Nagai K, Tarakhovsky A, Okada M: Transmembrane phosphoprotein Cbp regulates the activities of Src-family tyrosine kinases. Nature. 2000, 404: 999-1003. 10.1038/35010121.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Okada M, Nada S, Yamanashi Y, Yamamoto T, Nakagawa H: CSK: a protein-tyrosine kinase involved in regulation of src family kinases. J Biol Chem. 1991, 266: 24249-24252.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moarefi I, LaFevre-Bernt M, Sicheri F, Huse M, Lee CH, Kuriyan J, Miller WT: Activation of the Src-family tyrosine kinase Hck by SH3 domain displacement. Nature. 1997, 385: 650-653. 10.1038/385650a0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sicheri F, Moarefi I, Kuriyan J: Crystal structure of the Src family tyrosine kinase Hck. Nature. 1997, 385: 602-609. 10.1038/385602a0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu W, Harrison SC, Eck MJ: Three-dimensional structure of the tyrosine kinase c-Src. Nature. 1997, 385: 595-602. 10.1038/385595a0.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Davidson D, Bakinowski M, Thomas ML, Horejsi V, Veillette A: Phosphorylation-dependent regulation of T-cell activation by PAG/Cbp, a lipid raft-associated transmembrane adaptor. Mol Cell Biol. 2003, 23: 2017-2028. 10.1128/MCB.23.6.2017-2028.2003.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Baumgartner M, Angelisová P, Setterblad N, Mooney N, Werling D, Horejsí V, Langsley G: Constitutive exclusion of Csk from Hck-positive membrane microdomains permits Src kinase-dependent proliferation of Theileria-transformed B lymphocytes. Blood. 2003, 101: 1874-1881. 10.1182/blood-2002-02-0456.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tauzin S, Ding H, Khatib K, Ahmad I, Burdevet D, van Echten-Deckert G: Oncogenic association of the Cbp/PAG adaptor protein with the Lyn tyrosine kinase in human B-NHL rafts. Blood. 2008, 111: 2310-2320. 10.1182/blood-2007-05-090985.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Oneyama C, Hikita T, Enya K, Dobenecker MW, Saito K, Nada S: The lipid raft-anchored adaptor protein Cbp controls the oncogenic potential of c-Src. Mol Cell. 2008, 30: 426-436. 10.1016/j.molcel.2008.03.026.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Tedoldi S, Paterson JC, Hansmann ML, Natkunam Y, Rüdiger T, Angelisova P: Transmembrane adaptor molecules: a new category of lymphoid-cell markers. Blood. 2006, 107: 213-221. 10.1182/blood-2005-06-2273.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Smida M, Posevitz-Fejfar A, Horejsi V, Schraven B, Lindquist JA: A novel negative regulatory function of the phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains: blocking Ras activation. Blood. 2007, 110: 596-615. 10.1182/blood-2006-07-038752.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Brdicková N, Brdicka T, Andera L, Spicka J, Angelisová P, Milgram SL, Horejsí V: Interaction between two adapter proteins, PAG and EBP50: a possible link between membrane rafts and actin cytoskeleton. FEBS Lett. 2001, 507: 133-136. 10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02955-6.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Itoh K, Sakakibara M, Yamasaki S, Takeuchi A, Arase H, Miyazaki M: Cutting edge: negative regulation of immune synapse formation by anchoring lipid raft to cytoskeleton through Cbp-EBP50-ERM assembly. J Immunol. 2002, 168: 541-544.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Imamoto A, Soriano P: Disruption of the csk gene, encoding a negative regulator of Src family tyrosine kinases, leads to neural tube defects and embryonic lethality in mice. Cell. 1993, 73: 1117-1124. 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90641-3.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Nada S, Yagi T, Takeda H, Tokunaga T, Nakagawa H, Ikawa Y: Constitutive activation of Src family kinases in mouse embryos that lack Csk. Cell. 1993, 73: 1125-1135. 10.1016/0092-8674(93)90642-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Xu S, Huo J, Tan JE, Lam KP: Cbp deficiency alters Csk localization in lipid rafts but does not affect T-cell development. Mol Cell Biol. 2005, 25: 8486-8495. 10.1128/MCB.25.19.8486-8495.2005.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Dobenecker MW, Schmedt C, Okada M, Tarakhovsky A: The ubiquitously expressed Csk adaptor protein Cbp is dispensable for embryogenesis and T-cell development and function. Mol Cell Biol. 2005, 25: 10533-10542. 10.1128/MCB.25.23.10533-10542.2005.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lindquist S, Langnaese K, Karitkina D, Lerch G, Schraven B, Xavier R: Phosphoprotein associated with glycosphingolipid-enriched microdomains differentially modulates Src kinase activity in brain development. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e23978-10.1371/journal.pone.0023978.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shima T, Nada S, Okada M: Transmembrane phosphoprotein Cbp senses cell adhesion signaling mediated by Src family kinase in lipid rafts. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2003, 100: 14897-14902. 10.1073/pnas.2432139100.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Posevitz-Fejfár A, Smida M, Kliche S, Hartig R, Schraven B, Lindquist JA: A displaced PAG enhances proximal signaling and SDF-1-induced T cell migration. Eur J Immunol. 2008, 38: 250-259. 10.1002/eji.200636664.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang X, Simeoni L, Lindquist JA, Saez-Rodriguez J, Ambach A, Gilles ED: Dynamics of proximal signaling events after TCR/CD8-mediated induction of proliferation or apoptosis in mature CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008, 180: 6703-6712.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Courtois-Cox S, Jones SL, Cichowski K: Many roads lead to oncogene-induced senescence. Oncogene. 2008, 27: 2801-2809. 10.1038/sj.onc.1210950.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Filby A, Seddon B, Kleczkowska J, Salmond R, Tomlinson P, Smida M: Fyn regulates the duration of TCR engagement needed for commitment to effector function. J Immunol. 2007, 179: 4635-4644.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Duan L, Reddi AL, Ghosh A, Dimri M, Band H: The Cbl family and other ubiquitin ligases: destructive forces in control of antigen receptor signaling. Immunity. 2004, 21: 7-17. 10.1016/j.immuni.2004.06.012.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rudd CE, Taylor A, Schneider H: CD28 and CTLA-4 coreceptor expression and signal transduction. Immunol Rev. 2009, 229: 12-26. 10.1111/j.1600-065X.2009.00770.x.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Valk E, Rudd CE, Schneider H: CTLA-4 trafficking and surface expression. Trends Immunol. 2008, 29: 272-279. 10.1016/j.it.2008.02.011.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Teft WA, Kirchhof MG, Madrenas J: A molecular perspective of CTLA-4 function. Annu Rev Immunol. 2006, 24: 65-97. 10.1146/annurev.immunol.24.021605.090535.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Rudd CE, Martin M, Schneider H: CTLA-4 negative signaling via lipid rafts: A new perspective. Sci STKE. 2002, 128: pe18-Google Scholar
- Darlington PJ, Baroja ML, Chau TA, Siu E, Ling V, Carreno BM, Madrenas J: Surface cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 partitions within lipid rafts and relocates to the immunological synapse under conditions of inhibition of T cell activation. J Exp Med. 2002, 195: 1337-1347. 10.1084/jem.20011868.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chikuma S, Imboden JB, Bluestone JA: Negative regulation of T cell receptor-lipid raft interaction by cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4. J Exp Med. 2003, 197: 129-135.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Miyatake S, Nakaseko C, Umemori H, Yamamoto T, Saito T: Src family tyrosine kinases associate with and phosphorylate CTLA-4 (CD152). Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1998, 249: 444-448. 10.1006/bbrc.1998.9191.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chuang E, Lee KM, Robbins MD, Duerr JM, Alegre ML, Hambor JE: Regulation of cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated molecule-4 by Src kinases. J Immunol. 1999, 162: 1270-1277.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hu H, Rudd CE, Schneider H: Src kinases Fyn and Lck facilitate the accumulation of phosphorylated CTLA-4 and its association with PI-3 kinase in intracellular compartments of T-cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2001, 288: 573-578. 10.1006/bbrc.2001.5814.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Pandiyan P, Hegel JK, Krueger M, Quandt D, Brunner-Weinzierl MC: High IFN-gamma production of individual CD8 T lymphocytes is controlled by CD152 (CTLA-4). J Immunol. 2007, 178: 2132-2140.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vang T, Abrahamsen H, Myklebust S, Enserink J, Prydz H, Mustelin T: Knockdown of C-terminal Src kinase by siRNA-mediated RNA interference augments T cell receptor signaling in mature T cells. Eur J Immunol. 2004, 34: 2191-2199. 10.1002/eji.200425036.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Schneider H, Downey J, Smith A, Zinselmeyer BH, Rush C, Brewer JM: Reversal of the TCR stop signal by CTLA-4. Science. 2006, 313: 1972-1975. 10.1126/science.1131078.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Su MW, Yu CL, Burakoff SJ, Jin YJ: Targeting Src homology 2 domain-containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP-1) into lipid rafts inhibits CD3-induced T cell activation. J Immunol. 2001, 166: 3975-3982.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Guntermann C, Alexander DR: CTLA-4 suppresses proximal TCR signaling in resting human CD4(+) T cells by inhibiting ZAP-70 Tyr(319) phosphorylation: a potential role for tyrosine phosphatases. J Immunol. 2002, 168: 4420-4429.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang Y, Allison JP: Interaction of CTLA-4 with AP50, a clathrin-coated pit adaptor protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1997, 94: 9273-9278. 10.1073/pnas.94.17.9273.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chambers CA, Allison JP: The role of tyrosine phosphorylation and PTP-1C in CTLA-4 signal transduction. Eur J Immunol. 1996, 26: 3224-3229. 10.1002/eji.1830261257.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Zhang J, Somani AK, Yuen D, Yang Y, Love PE, Siminovitch KA: Involvement of the SHP-1 tyrosine phosphatase in regulation of T cell selection. J Immunol. 1999, 163: 3012-3021.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Marengère LE, Waterhouse P, Duncan GS, Mittrücker HW, Feng GS, Mak TW: Regulation of T cell receptor signaling by tyrosine phosphatase SYP association with CTLA-4. Science. 1996, 272: 1170-1173. 10.1126/science.272.5265.1170.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sathish JG, Johnson KG, Fuller KJ, LeRoy FG, Meyaard L, Sims MJ, Matthews RJ: Constitutive association of SHP-1 with leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1 in human T cells. J Immunol. 2001, 166: 1763-1770.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Lebbink RJ, de Ruiter T, Verbrugge A, Bril WS, Meyaard L: The mouse homologue of the leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1 is an inhibitory receptor that recruits Src homology region 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-2, but not SHP-1. J Immunol. 2004, 172: 5535-5543.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ueda H, Howson JM, Esposito L, Heward J, Snook H, Chamberlain G: Association of the T-cell regulatory gene CTLA4 with susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Nature. 2003, 423: 506-511. 10.1038/nature01621.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Vijayakrishnan L, Slavik JM, Illés Z, Greenwald RJ, Rainbow D, Greve B: An autoimmune disease-associated CTLA-4 splice variant lacking the B7 binding domain signals negatively in T cells. Immunity. 2004, 20: 563-575. 10.1016/S1074-7613(04)00110-4.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Chikuma S, Abbas AK, Bluestone JA: B7-independent inhibition of T cells by CTLA-4. J Immunol. 2005, 175: 177-181.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Kim KD, Choi JM, Chae WJ, Lee SK: Synergistic inhibition of T-cell activation by a cell-permeable ZAP-70 mutant and ctCTLA-4. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2009, 381: 355-360. 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.02.046.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Choi JM, Kim SH, Shin JH, Gibson T, Yoon BS, Lee DH: Transduction of the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 inhibits TcR-specific activation signals and prevents collagen-induced arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 2008, 105: 19875-19880. 10.1073/pnas.0805198105.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Choi JM, Ahn MH, Chae WJ, Jung YG, Park JC, Song HM: Intranasal delivery of the cytoplasmic domain of CTLA-4 using a novel protein transduction domain prevents allergic inflammation. Nat Med. 2006, 12: 574-579. 10.1038/nm1385.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Qureshi OS, Kaur S, Hou TZ, Jeffery LE, Poulter NS, Briggs Z: Constitutive clathrin-mediated endocytosis of CTLA-4 persists during T cell activation. J Biol Chem. 2012, 287: 9429-9440. 10.1074/jbc.M111.304329.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Walunas TL, Lenschow DJ, Bakker CY, Linsley PS, Freeman GJ, Green JM: CTLA-4 can function as a negative regulator of T cell activation. Immunity. 1994, 1: 405-413. 10.1016/1074-7613(94)90071-X.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Krummel MF, Allison JP: CD28 and CTLA-4 have opposing effects on the response of T cells to stimulation. J Exp Med. 1995, 182: 459-465. 10.1084/jem.182.2.459.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang XB, Zheng CY, Giscombe R, Lefvert AK: Regulation of surface and intracellular expression of CTLA-4 on human peripheral T cells. Scand J Immunol. 2001, 54: 453-458. 10.1046/j.1365-3083.2001.00985.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Wang SF, Fouquet S, Chapon M, Salmon H, Regnier F, Labroquère K: Early T cell signalling is reversibly altered in PD-1+ T lymphocytes infiltrating human tumors. PLoS One. 2011, 6: e17621-10.1371/journal.pone.0017621.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Iype T, Sankarshanan M, Mauldin IS, Mullins DW, Lorenz U: The protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-1 modulates the suppressive activity of regulatory T cells. J Immunol. 2010, 185: 6115-6127. 10.4049/jimmunol.1000622.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Gajewski TF, Fallarino F, Fields PE, Rivas F, Alegre ML: Absence of CTLA-4 lowers the activation threshold of primed CD8+ TCR-transgenic T cells: lack of correlation with Src homology domain 2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase. J Immunol. 2001, 166: 3900-3907.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Sansom DM, Walker LS: The role of CD28 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) in regulatory T-cell biology. Immunol Rev. 2006, 212: 131-148. 10.1111/j.0105-2896.2006.00419.x.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Inomata M, Shimada Y, Hayashi M, Shimizu J, Ohno-Iwashita Y: Impairment in a negative regulatory system for TCR signaling in CD4+ T cells from old mice. FEBS Lett. 2007, 581: 3039-3043. 10.1016/j.febslet.2007.05.063.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Shimada Y, Hayashi M, Nagasaka Y, Ohno-Iwashita Y, Inomata M: Age-associated up-regulation of a negative co-stimulatory receptor PD-1 in mouse CD4+ T cells. Exp Gerontol. 2009, 44: 517-522. 10.1016/j.exger.2009.05.003.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Suzuki K, Oneyama C, Kimura H, Tajima S, Okada M: Down-regulation of the tumor suppressor C-terminal Src kinase (Csk)-binding protein (Cbp)/PAG1 is mediated by epigenetic histone modifications via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. J Biol Chem. 2011, 286: 15698-15706. 10.1074/jbc.M110.195362.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Waterhouse P, Penninger JM, Timms E, Wakeham A, Shahinian A, Lee KP: Lymphoproliferative disorders with early lethality in mice deficient in Ctla-4. Science. 1995, 270: 985-988. 10.1126/science.270.5238.985.PubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.