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Table 1 Types of extracellular vesicles

From: A review on exosomes application in clinical trials: perspective, questions, and challenges

EVs Size Markers Mechanism of biogenesis
Exosomes 30–150 nm CD63, CD9, CD81, Tsg101 Generated by inward budding of the membrane of MVBs through ESCRT-dependent
Or/and ESCRT-independent and released into the ECM
upon fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane
Exomeres  < 50 nm Unknown Unknown
Microvesicles or ectosomes 100–1000 nm ARF6, Annexin A1 pinching off from membrane
protrusions/the plasma membrane shedding
Apoptotic bodies 50–5000 nm Phosphatidylserine Generated from apoptotic cells following stimulation of apoptosis-related pathways