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Table 1 Selected probiotic preparations that have been investigated to treat various diseases

From: Effects of therapeutic probiotics on modulation of microRNAs

Physiology or pathological condition Probiotic agent Probiotic concentration Duration of study Effect (s) Model Sample (n) Ref
Colorectal cancer Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. rhamnosus 2 × 109 CFU (colony-forming units) 12 weeks Enhance bowel signs and QOL Human 28 [28]
Gastric cancer Bifidobacterium infantis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus cereus > 106 CFU/tablet 6–7 days Improve immune response and decrease severity of inflammation Human 50 [29]
Colorectal cancer Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. lactis,
Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. infantis
3 × 1010 CFU 8 weeks Improve QOL, decrease inflammatory biomarkers, reduce side effects of chemotherapy Human 70 [30]
Colorectal cancer Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei. L. lactis, Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. infantis 3 × 1010 CFU 1 week Accelerate return of normal gut function Human 20 [31]
Asthma Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG
(LGG)
1 × 1010 CFU 6 months Enhance T-regulatory induction Human 10 [32]
Eczema and Asthma Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) 1 × 1010 CFU 6 months Prevent the eczema or asthma development Human 92 [33]
Seasonal allergic rhinitis and Intermittent asthma Bifidobacterium spp (B. longum BB536,
B. infantis M-63, B. breve M-16V)
3 × 109 CFU,
1 × 109 CFU and 1 × 109 CFU
4 weeks Enhance AR and QOL Human 40 [34]
Atopic Bifidobacterium bifidumW23, Bifi-dobacterium lactisW52 and Lactococcus Lactis W58 3 × 109 CFU 6 years Minor impact on gut microbiota composition Human 99 [35]
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus 3 × 109 CFU At least 10 days Decreased frequency of necrotizing enterocolitis in preterm neonates Human 52 [36]
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) Bifidobacterium lactis and Lactobacillus rhamnosus 1 × 108 CFU and 1 × 109 CFU 3 years No significant effects Human 332 [37]
Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium bifidum 1 × 109CFU and 1 × 109 CFU 8 month No significant effects Human 31 [38]
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 1 × 103 CFU
and 2 × 107 CFU
30 days Anti-inflammatory effects Human 8 [39]
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium BB-12 1 × 106 CFU 8 weeks Enhanced intestinal function Human 105 [40]
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Lactobacillus rhamnosus
GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14
2 × 109 CFU 4 month No significant effects Human 14 [41]
Rheumatoid arthritis Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei and Bifidobacterium bifidum 6 × 109 CFU 8 weeks Therapeutic effects Human 30 [42]
Rheumatoid arthritis Lactobacillus casei 01 1 × 108 CFU 8 weeks Reduced disease activity and inflammatory status Human 22 [43]
Atopic dermatitis Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LR) NA 8 weeks Reduce signs of atopic dermatitis Human 30 [44]
Atopic dermatitis Lactobacillus plantarum IS-10506 1 × 1010 CFU 12 weeks Therapeutic effects Human 12 [45]
Atopic dermatitis (AD) Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bb-12 (Bb-12), d L. acidophilus La-5 (La-5) 5 × 1010 CFU,5 × 1010 CFU and 5 × 109 CFU 2 years Decreased proportion of Th22 cells. Human 68 [46]
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Bacillus subtilis, Bifidobacterium spp., Lactobacillus spp., L. lactis, and Streptococcus thermophilus 8 × 109 CFU 16 weeks Significantly improvement in IBS symptoms well tolerance Human 181 [47]
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Lactobacillus acidophilus CL1285, L. casei LBC80R, L. rhamnosus CLR2 5 × 1010 CFU 12 weeks Improved stool consistency and frequency, QOL, and IBS symptoms Human 76 [48]
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Bifidobacterium longum (BL) 1 × 1010 CFU 6 weeks Decreased depression Human 18 [49]
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) Lactobacillus brevis KB290 1 × 109 CFU 12 weeks Improved symptoms and inflammatory status Human 20 [50]
Gastroenteritis Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG 1 × 1010 CFU 5 days No significant effects Human 468 [51]
Acute gastroenteritis (AGE) Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LGG) 1 × 1010 CFU (twice a day) 5 days - Human - [52]
Gastroenteritis Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) 1 × 1010 CFU 4 weeks Immuno-modulatory effects Human 65 [53]
Eczema Lactobacillus salivarius CUL61, L. paracasei
CUL08, Bifidobacterium animalis subspecies lactis CUL34 and B. bifidum CUL20
1 × 1010 CFU 2 years Prevent eczema Human 187 [54]
Eczema Bifidobacterium longum (BL999) and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LPR) NA 5 years No significant effects Human 124 [55]
Allergic rhinitis Bifidobacterium lactis NCC 2818 4 × 109 CFU 8 weeks Improved immune parameters and allergic symptoms Human 10 [56]
Allergic rhinitis Lactobacillus paracasei LP-33 2 × 109 CFU 5 weeks Enhanced QOL Human 179 [57]
Allergic rhinitis Lactobacillus paracasei HF.A00232 (LP) 5 × 109 CFU 8 weeks No significant effects Human 32 [58]
Celiac disease Bifidobacterium longum CECT 7347 1 × 109 CFU 3 months Enhanced health status Human 17 [59]
Celiac disease Bifidobacterium infantis 2 × 109 CFU 3 weeks - Human 12 [60]
Celiac disease Bifidobacterium breve BR03 and B632 1 × 109 CFU 3 month Reduced TNF-α levels Human 22 [61]
Obesity Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) ≥ 4 × 1010 CFU 6 months Decreased body weight and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration Human 12 [62]
Obesity Lactobacillus rhamnosus (LPR) 1.6 × 108 CFU 12 weeks Improve fasting fullness and cognitive restraint in men Human 62 [63]
Obesity Lactobacillus curvatus HY7601, L. plantarum KY1032 5 × 109 CFU 12 weeks Induced weight loss and decreased adiposity . Human 32 [64]
Type I diabetes and Type II diabetes Lactobacillus acidophilus ZT-L1, Bifidobacterium bifidum ZT-B1, L.
reuteri ZT-Lre, L. fermentum ZT-L3
8 × 109 CFU 12 weeks Beneficial effects on glycemic control and markers of cardio-metabolic risk. Human 30 [65]
Type II diabetes Bifidobacterium bifidum W23, B. lactis W52, L. acidophilus W37, L.
brevis W63, L. casei W56, L. salivarius W24, Lactococcus lactis W19 and L.s lactis W58
2.5 × 109 CFU 12 weeks Enhanced HOMA-IR Human 39 [66]
Type II diabetes Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 1 × 108  CFU 12 weeks No significant effects Human 30 [67]
Type II diabetes concentrated biomass of 14 probiotic bacteria genera
Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Propionibacterium
Lactobacillus + Lactococcus
(6 × 1010 CFU/g), Bifidobacterium
(1 × 1010/g), Propionibacterium (3 × 1010/g) and Acetobacter
(1 × 106/g)
8 weeks Reversed insulin resistance Human 31 [68]
Type II diabetes Lactobacillus acidophilus La-5 and Bifidobacterium animalis subsp lactis BB-12 1 × 109 CFU 6 weeks Enhanced glycemic control in T2D patients, however, the intake of fermented milk seems to be involved with other metabolic changes, such as reduced inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and resistin) . Human 23 [69]
HIV Lactobacillus casei Shirota (LcS) 6.5 × 108 CFU 8 weeks Immunological and virological effects Human 20 [70]
HIV Lactobacillus plantarum, Streptococcus thermophilus, Bifidobacterium
breve, L. paracasei,
L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus,
L. acidophilus,
B. longum,
B. infantis
1.8 × 1012 CFU 6 months Beneficial effects on the reconstitution of physical and immunological integrity of the mucosal intestinal barrier Human 10 [71]
HIV Saccharomyces boulardii NA 12 weeks Therapeutic effects Human 22 [72]
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease a mixture of eight probiotic strains (Streptococcus thermophilus, bifidobacteria SPP., Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. paracasei, and L. delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus) NA 4 month Reduced body mass index (BMI) in probiotic supplemented children Human 22 [73]
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Lactobacillus acidophilus La5
and Bifidobacterium lactis Bb12
6.46 × 106 and 4.97 × 106 CFU/g 8 weeks Improved
hepatic enzymes, serum total cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels
Human 36 [74]
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease Lactobacillus
casei, L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus, L. bulgaricus, Bifidobacterium breve, B. longum, and Streptococcus
thermophilus.
Lactobacillus casei
(3 × 109 CFU/g), Lactobacillus acidophilus
(3 × 1010 CFU/
g), Lactobacillus rhamnosus
(7 × 109 CFU/g), Lactobacillus bulgaricus
(5 × 108 CFU/g), Bifidobacterium breve (2 × 1010 CFU/g), Bifidobacterium longum (1 × 109 CFU/g), and Streptococcus
thermophilus
(3 × 108 CFU/g).
8 weeks Reduced insulin requirement, reversed insulin resistance, TNF-α, and IL-6 Human 21 [75]
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis Lactobacillus casei, L. rhamnosus, L. bulgaris,
Bifidobacterium longum, and Streptococcus thermophilus
1 × 108 CFU 12 weeks Reduced body mass index (BMI) and serum cholesterol Human 38 [76]
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis Lactobacillus plantarum, L. deslbrueckii, L. acidophilus, L. rhamnosus and Bifidobacterium bifidum 2 × 108 CFU 6 months No changes in body mass index, waist circumference, glucose or lipid levels but decreased liver fat and aspartate transaminase (AST) level Human 10 [77]
Urinary Tract Infections Lactobacillus crispatus GAI 98322 1 × 108 CFU 1 year Prevent recurrence of UTI Human 9 [78]
Urinary Tract Infections Lactobacillus crispatus 1 × 108 CFU 10 weeks Less recurrence of UTI Human 43 [79]
Urinary Tract Infections Lactobacillus GG 6 × 109 CFU 1 week Decreased incidence of UTIs, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) and sepsis Human 295 [80]
Urinary Tract Infections Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 5 × 108 CFU 5 days Minimal side effects Human 15 [81]
Vaccine Adjuvants Bifidobacterium lactis, Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. plantarum, L. paracasei and L. salivarius 2 × 1010 CFU 3 weeks Faster immune response. Specific probiotics may be adjuvants to humoral immune response following oral vaccination Human 63 [82]
Vaccine Adjuvants Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 1 × 1010 CFU 4 weeks Potentiated the immunologic response and improved systemic protection from infection Human 25 [83]
Vaccine Adjuvants Lactobacillus GG 1 × 1010 CFU 4 weeks Improved influenza vaccine immunogenicity Human 19 [84]
Plaque and carries Lactobacillus reuteri 1 × 108 CFU 1 years Decreased caries prevalence and gingivitis score Human 60 [85]
Plaque and carries Streptococcus uberis KJ2™, Streptococcus. oralis KJ3™, Streptococcus. rattus JH145 1 × 108 CFU 1 year Reduced early childhood caries development Human 54 [86]
Plaque and carries Lactobacillus brevis CD2 NA 6 weeks Beneficial effects on variables associated with oral health Human 91 [87]
Plaque and carries Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12 1 × 1010 CFU 2 years No significant effects Human 32 [88]
Plaque and carries Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DN-173010 ≥ 108 CFU 4 weeks Effect on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammatory parameters Human 26 [89]
Oral wounds A mixture of two probiotic strains, Lactobacilli reuteri DSM 17938 and
ATCC PTA 5289
2 × 108 CFU/mL 1 week No significant effects Human - [90]
oral lichen planus (OLP) Lactobacilli reuteri (DSM 17938 and ATCC PTA 5289) NA 16 weeks No significant effects Human 9 [91]
Periodontitis L. rhamnosus
SP1
2 × 107 CFU 3 month Clinical and microbiological improvements. Human 16 [92]
Periodontitis Lactobacillus reuteri 1 × 108 CFU 3 weeks Decreased
pro-inflammatory cytokine response and improved clinical parameters
Human 24 [93]
Periodontitis Lactobacillus reuteri 1 × 108 CFU 12 weeks Useful adjunct to scaling and root planing (SRP) in chronic periodontitis. Human 15 [94]
chronic periodontitis (CP) Lactobacillus Reuteri NA 3 weeks Reduced inflammatory markers Human 15 [95]
Periodontitis L. rhamnosus SP1 2 × 107 CFU 3 months Clinical improvement Human 12 [96]
Gingivitis Bifidobacterium animalis ≥ 108 CFU 4 weeks Effects on plaque accumulation and gingival inflammation Human 26 [89]
Gingivitis Lactobacillus rhamnosus PB01, DSM 14869 and Lactobacillus curvatus EB10, DSM 32307 ≤ 108 CFU/tablet 4 weeks Enhanced gingival health Human 23 [97]
Gingivitis Bacillus subtilis,
Bacillus megaterium and Bacillus pumulus as a toothpaste
5 × 107 CFU 8 weeks No significant effects Human 20 [98]
Gingivitis Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis and Pediococcus acidilactici NA 6 weeks Significant changes in mean gingival index Human 29 [99]
Pregnancy
Gingivitis
Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 ≥ 108 CFU 7 weeks Useful adjunct in the control of pregnancy gingivitis Human 24 [100]
Halitosis Lactobacillus salivarius WB21 2 × 109 CFU 4 weeks Improved halitosis Human 20 [101]
Halitosis Lactobacillus brevis CD2 NA 2 weeks No significant effects Human 10 [102]
Candida infection Lactobacillus reuteri 1 × 108 CFU 1 month Decreased incidence of sepsis in addition to improving symptoms and feeding Human 150 [103]
Candida infection Lactobacillus fermentum LF10 and L. acidophilus LA02 ≥ 4 × 108 CFU 11 weeks - Human 57 [104]
Candida infection Lactobacillus acidophilus, L.
rhamnosus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and L. delbrueckii
subsp. bulgaricus
NA   Prevented relapse Human 201 [105]