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Table 2 Summary of currently available parameters for predicting the efficacy of CAR-modified immune cells

From: The Role of Immunological Synapse in Predicting the Efficacy of Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) Immunotherapy

  Parameter Prediction Disease References
Pre-expansion of T cells Percentage of pre-expansion CD8 TN (naive), CD8 TCM (central memory), TEM (effector memory), TEFF (effector) No CLL [49]
Percentage of pre-expansion CD8 TSCM (stem cell memory) Modestly significant CLL [49]
Percentage of pre-expansion CD45RO- CD27+ CD8+ T cells Yes CLL [49]
CAR cells Infused CAR cell dose No CLL [49]
CD27+ PD-1-CD8+ CAR-T cells Yes CLL [49]
Upregulated pSTAT3 in response to IL-6 from CD27+ PD-1- CD8+ CAR-T cells with IL-6 receptor-β chain Yes CLL [49]
CD4/CD8 ratio No CLL [49]
CAR transduction efficiency No CLL [47, 49]
Transgene level in blood No CLL [49]
Telomere length of CAR No CLL [49]
CAR RNA-sequence Yes CLL [49]
Cytokine Serum IL-6 level Debated CLL [48, 49]
Serum IL-15 level Yes DLBCL [48]
Serum IL-10 level Yes DLBCL [48]
4-h Cr51 release No Not Applicable (NA) [47]
IFN-gamma (IFN-γ) No Not Applicable (NA) [47]
TNF-gamma No Not Applicable (NA) [47]
IL-2 No Not Applicable (NA) [47]
Others Cytokine used in culture (IL-2 vs IL-7+IL-15) No Kappa (K+) NHL [34]
Quality of immunological synapse Yes Not Applicable (NA) [47]
In Vivo Animal model Yes CLL [47, 49]