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Table 1 TGFβ and WNT signaling pathways involved in the regulation of cardiac fibrosis

From: TGF-β and WNT signaling pathways in cardiac fibrosis: non-coding RNAs come into focus

Pathway Function model Anti-fibrotic or pro-fibrotic) Reference
Aldehyde dehydrogenase-2 (ALDH2) Decreased β-catenin, phosphorylated GSK-3β, and WNT-1 MI/rat Anti [128]
WNT10b Increased Axin2, Lef1 and Tcf7 Transgenic (TG) WNT10b mice Anti [129]
S100A4 Decreased β-catenin and phosphorylated β-catenin LAD /mouse; CFs Pro [130]
WNT3a and WNT5a Decreased glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β) Human CFs Pro [131]
Qishen Granule (QSG) Inhibition of the TGF-β/Smad3 pathway and the phosphorylation of GSK-3β HF/Rat Anti [132]
Xinfuli Granule (XG) Decreased Smad3, P-Smad3 and Smad2 protein MI/rat Anti [133]
Human antigen R (HuR) Increased TGF-β1 TAC/HuR-deletion mouse Pro [134]
Transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) Decreased TGF-β, IL-4 and IL-10 TAC/mouse Pro [135]
Small molecule inhibitor ICG-001 Decreases β-Catenin Ang II infusion/ Cfs Rat Anti [136]
EphrinB2 (erythropoietin-producing hepatoma interactor B2) Increased TGF-β/Smad3 pathway and STAT3 Ang II MI/ Mouse Pro [137]