Succinate induces hypertrophy in neonatal cardiomyocytes. A. Representative confocal images of neonatal cardiomyocytes double-labeled with DAPI (blue), and anti-α-actinin (red). Left panel shows control cells and right panel shows cells treated with succinate. B. Summary of cellular area, indicating that succinate induces hypertrophy. (*p < 0.05, n = 35 cells). C. Representative immunoblot of whole-cell protein lysates from neonatal cardiomyocytes probed with anti-ANP and anti-GAPDH. D. Bar graph shows that succinate significantly increases ANP levels. These results represent the mean ± S.E. of three separate experiments (**p < 0.01).