Activation of p38 MAPK, a member of the MAPK superfamily, in HIMEC by VEGF was assessed using Western blot analysis, as described above using phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated specific anti-p38 MAPK antibodies. VEGF enhanced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK is diminished by CsA and decreased by SB203580 (inhibits the p38 MAPK activity but not its phosphorylation), as compared with total p38 MAPK. Again, TNF-α/LPS activation served as a positive control. Coomassie blue staining of the polyacrylamide gel confirms equal amounts of total protein loaded. The representative figure shown is from one of three independent experiments.