Effect of p38MAPK (p38) inhibition on intracellular signaling following IR. Rats were pretreated with the carrier DMSO or BIRB796 (B-796) (5 mg/kg BW) for 1 hour and subjected to 1 hour of renal ischemia followed by different time points of reperfusion (15 min, 2 days, 7 days). Kidneys were harvested at given time points of reperfusion and total tissue lysates were used to determine activation pattern of MAPKs (p38MAPK, JNK, ERK) and the downstream target of p38MAPK (MK2) by phosphorylation specific antibodies. A representative immunoblot (A) and summary graphs (B, C) are shown. Results are given as mean ± SEM (n = 3). ** p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 vs. sham-operated group; §p < 0.01, #p < 0.001 vs. IR-15 min group.