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Archived Comments for: Mesenchymal to amoeboid transition is associated with stem-like features of melanoma cells

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  1. The Emerging Concept of MAT in Melanoma Invasion and Metastasis

    Go Yoshida, Tokyo Medical and Dental University

    17 November 2014

    Melanoma cells which undergo MAT are characterized by the retraction of cell protrusions as well as the Rho-mediated rounding of the cell body, which makes easy for melanoma cells to reach the pre-metastatic niche in the peritoneal lymph nodes, lungs, or brain.

    Indeed, the definition of EMT corresponds to the tumor originated from epithelial tissue, but not from mesenchymal tissue. That is why the concept of MAT, which explains the cellular plasticity to increase the cancer stem-like phenotypes for mesenchymal tumors, should be clearly distinguished from the conventional EMT programme.

    Further, it has been reported by several groups that re-expression or activation of EphA2 expression in melanoma cells activates the non-proteolytic invasive phenotype independent of MMP family. Recent reports also found out that both EMT and MAT are due to the ephrinA1/EphA2 signal pathway orchestrated by cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). (Cancer Res. 2009;69:2072-81, Mol Cancer Res. 2011;9:149-60, and J Mol Med (Berl). 2013;91:103-15.) However, it seems to be complicated for me the phenomenon in which melanoma cells are cooperated with stromal fibroblasts in this manner, mainly because melanoma cells tend to show single cell migration, while squamous cancer cells (SCCs) undergo collective cell migration. Rounded SCCs in collective cell migration and elongated-shaped melanoma cells in single cell migration are regulated by JAK/STAT pathway (Cancer Cell. 2011;20:229-45).

    Competing interests