TGF-β induces caveolin-1 expression in a subset of HCC cell lines. (A) qReal-time analysis of TGF-β1 treated HCC cell lines. The low caveolin-1 expressing lines respond to TGF-β via an upregulation of expression (*p < 0.05; **p < 0.01), whereas HLE, HLF and FLC-4 do not change expression upon TGF-β1 challenge. (B) Western blot of PLC/PRF/5 lysates revealed caveolin-1 upregulation after 12 and 24 h of TGF-β1 treatment. (C) HUH-7 cells require 36 h TGF-β1 treatment to enhance caveolin-1 protein expression. (D) Hep3B cells strongly elevate caveolin-1 expression after 24 h of TGF-β1 treatment. Blocking FAK or Src phosphorylation by applying the chemical inhibitors PF573228 (4 μM) or SU6656 (15 μM) abolished the induction of caveolin-1 protein expression upon TGF-β1 stimulation.