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Box 1 Key questions about exosomes biogenesis

From: A review on exosomes application in clinical trials: perspective, questions, and challenges

Are underlying mechanisms in vitro relevant in vivo for exosomes biogenesis?

Do different cells use the same mechanisms for exosomes biogenesis?

What is the main regulation mechanism for the sorting specific exosomal cargo?

Do environmental signals such as extracellular matrix and receptor-ligand interaction affect exosomes biogenesis?

What is the causative reason that MVBs choose to fuse with lysosomes?

Do exist a subpopulation of MVBs inside typical cells?

How crosstalk between exosomes and other signaling pathways is regulated? For example, autophagy, apoptosis, and traditional secretory pathways may interplay and share function with exosomes, therefore the exact adjustment mechanism for exosomes biogenesis remain an obstacle in stress condition

What is the main way that exosomes is used to affect target cells? In another word, do all cells use a common way to affect target cells?