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Fig. 1 | Cell Communication and Signaling

Fig. 1

From: A review on exosomes application in clinical trials: perspective, questions, and challenges

Fig. 1

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) biogenesis. Two main subclasses of EVs are exosomes and microvesicles (MVs). Exosomes biogenesis is complex and occurs inside multivesicular bodies (MVBs) located in the cytoplasm. ESCRT complexes and different molecules contribute to loading, sorting and forming exosomes in ATP dependent and independent manners. Exosomes cargo come from Golgi apparatus, the endosomal pathway, and the cytoplasm. Rab proteins mediate intracellular trafficking of endosomal compartments and exosomes. MVBs have been reported to fuse with either plasma membrane, lysosomes or amphisoms. When MVBs fuse with the plasma membrane, exosomes are released into the extracellular milieu. There is evidence that exosomes biogenesis pathway may crosstalk with autophagy flux. MVBs may fuse with autophagosomes and form the hybrid vesicles known ‘’Amphisomes’’, which finally fuse with the plasma membrane or lysosomes. MVs are larger than exosomes and formed from the plasma membrane through the outward budding and shedding process. EVs can affect the target cells' fate and signaling pathways in three possible ways comprising endocytosis, receptor-ligand interaction, and direct fusion with the plasma membrane

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