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Table 1 Potential exosomes biomarkers of PaCa

From: Exosomes: the key of sophisticated cell–cell communication and targeted metastasis in pancreatic cancer

Biomarkers Exosome function Signaling pathway References
CD44v6 Enhance migration and invasion Activate Wnt/β-Catenin pathway and increase PAI-1, MMP and TIM-1 [44, 95, 96]
Tspan8 Promote signaling, apoptosis-resistance, angiogenesis, EMT, motility and invasion Increase expression of chemokine and receptor [44, 97]
MIF Promote the formation of the liver pre-metastatic niche Up-regulate TGF-β expression, KC and HSC activation and induce fibronectin secretion [32]
Clandin7 Promote migration and invasion Increase pAkt/Bcl-2/Bcl-XL/MDR1, promote matrix degradation, and reprogram SC and HPC [48]
Lin28B Promote the recruitment of PSC Activate Lin28B/let-7/HMGA2 /PDGFB axis [52]
GPC1 Inform pancreas cancer burden Carry mutant Kras mRNA and HS modifications [98,99,100]
C1QBP HSC activation and liver fibrosis Induce phosphorylation of the IGF-1 signaling molecule [97]
Plectin Induce migration, proliferation and invasion Not mentioned [80]
miR-1246 Promote PSC proliferation and pancreatic fibrosis Induce Akt/ERK activation and increase α-SMA and procollagen type I C-peptide [51, 97, 101]
miR-301a-3p Promote metastasis and EMT Mediate M2 macrophage polarization via PTEN/PI3Kγ [102]
SRSF1 Regulate exosome microRNA enrichment Direct binding to miR-1246 sequence [86]
lnc-Sox2ot Promote EMT and stem cell like properties Bind to the miR-200 family [101]
ITGs Promote tumor-specific metastasis Promote adhesion and activate genes [33]
AEP Enhance invasion and promote metastasis Regulate activation of PI3K/AKT signaling [102]
CKAP4 Proliferation and migration of PDAC cells DKK1-dependent endocytosis routes [103]