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Table 1 Classification of nuclear localization signals (partial)

From: Types of nuclear localization signals and mechanisms of protein import into the nucleus

Category Source Sequence Transport receptors
Classical nuclear localization signals
(cNLS)
MP NLS VACM-1/CUL5 [19] PKLKRQ Importin α/β1
CXCR4 [20] RPRK
VP1 [21] RRARRPRG
BP NLS 53BP1 [22] GKRKLITSEEERSPAKRGRKS
ING4 [23] KGKKGRTQKEKKAARARSKGKN
IER5 [24] RKRCAAGVGGGPAGCPAPGSTPLKKPRR
ERK5 [25] RKPVTAQERQREREEKRRRRQERAKEREKRRQERER
Non-classical nuclear localization signals
(ncNLS)
PY-NLS Hrp1 [26] RSGGNHRRNGRGGRGGYNRRNNGYHPY Importin βs
UL79 [27] TLLLRETMNNLGVSDHAVLSRKTPQPY
EWS [28] PGKMDKGEHRQERRDRPY
Other non-classical NLS PTHrP [29] GKKKKGKPGKRREQRKKKRRT
Pho4 [30] SANKVTKNKSNSSPYLNKRKGKPGPDS
rpL23a [31] VHSHKKKKIPTSPTFTTPKTLTLRRQPKYPRKSAPRRNKLDHY
Other types of nuclear localization signals Putative NLS PABPN1 None Importin αss
Spatial epitope NLS STAT1 None
Cryptic NLS FGF2 None
Multiple NLS MSX1 [32] RKHKTNRKPR
NRRAKAKR
NLS-RARα [33] RNKKKK
RKVIK