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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Linoleic acid improves assembly of the CII subunit and CIII2/CIV complex of the mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation system in heart failure

  NYHA I NYHA II NYHA III P-value
Number 45 93 15  
Demographic factors
 Age, yrs 66 ± 12 68 ± 13 67 ± 18 0.734
 Men, n (%) 34 (76) 73 (71) 5 (33) 0.010
 Body mass index, kg/m2 23.7 ± 3.3 23.7 ± 5.6 23.3 ± 5.8 0.685
Cause of heart failure, n (%)
 Ischemic heart disease 16 (36) 23 (25) 2 (13) 0.264
 Dilated cardiomyopathy 14 (31) 5 (5) 7 (47) 0.393
 Valvular heart disease 11 (24) 6 (6) 6 (40) 0.396
 Hypertensive heart disease 12 (27) 27 (29) 4 (27) 0.965
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy 0 (0) 3 (3) 0 (0) 0.189
Medication, n (%)
 β-blocker 34 (76) 84 (90) 12 (80) 0.403
 ACE-I or ARB 28 (62) 76 (82) 11 (73) 0.029
 Diuretics 34 (76) 72 (77) 14 (93) 0.311
Echocardiographic parameters
 LVEDD, mm 55 ± 9 57 ± 12 62 ± 13 0.089
 LVEF, % 46 ± 14 45 ± 16 35 ± 16 0.057
  1. NYHA class, New York Heart Association class; ACE-I, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor; ARB, angiotensin II receptor blocker; LVEDD, left ventricular end-diastolic diameter; LVEF, left ventricular ejection fraction. Data are expressed as means ± SD