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Fig. 1 | Cell Communication and Signaling

Fig. 1

From: TNF-α promotes human antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity of porcine endothelial cells through downregulating P38-mediated Occludin expression

Fig. 1

TNF-α promoted the cytotoxicity of porcine ECs in a human antibody-mediated complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) model. a PIECs were treated with recombinant human IL-2 (20 ng/ml), IL-15 (100 ng/ml), IL-8 (100 ng/ml), IL-6 (20 ng/ml), TNF-α (20 ng/ml), G-CSF (100 ng/ml), G-MCSF (50 ng/ml), IFNγ (50 ng/ml), IL-4 (20 ng/ml), or medium as a negative control (NC) for 48 h and then exposed to human serum to induce antibody-mediated CDC. b-c PIECs were treated with rhTNF-α (20 ng/ml), or medium as a NC for 48 h and then exposed to human serum to induce antibody-mediated CDC. The extent of cytotoxicity was assessed by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) (b) or neutral red (c). d PAECs were treated with rhTNF-α (20 ng/ml), or medium as a NC for 48 h and then exposed to human serum to induce antibody-mediated CDC. e PIECs were treated with different concentrations of rhTNF-α (2, 10, 20 or 50 ng/ml) or medium as a NC for 48 h and then exposed to human serum to induce antibody-mediated CDC. f PIECs were treated with rhTNF-α (20 ng/ml) or medium as a NC for 0, 24, 48 or 72 h, and then exposed to human serum to induce antibody-mediated CDC. Data are representative of at least three independent experiments (mean ± SEM). *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 by Student’s t test

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