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Table 1 Developmental phenotypes of Id-knockout animal model

From: Inhibitor of DNA binding in heart development and cardiovascular diseases

Model Species Cardiac Phenotype Reference
Id1 konckdown by siRNA Chick and mouse Decreased endocardial epithelial-to-mesenchymal transformation 50
Id2 −/− Mouse Atrioventricular septal defects and membranous ventricular septal defects in Id2 null perinatal death, left bundle branch block, indicative of ventricular conduction delay in surviving mice 54, 55
Id4 −/− Zebrafish Retrograde blood flow at the atrioventricular canal, indicating defects in atrioventricular valve function 61
Id1 −/− Id3 −/− ; Id1 −/− Id2 −/− ; Id1 −/− Id2 +/− Id3 −/− ; Id1 +/− Id2 +/− Id3 −/− Mouse Ventricular septal defects, impaired ventricular trabeculation, thinning of the compact myocardium, and outflow tract atresia at E11.5 to E13.5 46
Id1 −/− Id2 −/− Id3 −/− Mouse Reduced heart size by 40 to 60%, defects in auriculoventricular dissociation and thinner ventricular compact layer from E9.5 46
Id1 −/− Id2 −/− Id3 −/− Id4 −/− Mouse Heart tube-forming region missed at cardiac crescent stages 45
Id1f/fId3−/− or Id1f/−Id3−/−; Tie2-Cre Mouse Fibrotic vasculature, cardiac enlargement, ventricular septal defects and decreased cardiac function 70
  1. E embryonic day, Id inhibitor of DNA binding, siRNA small interfering RNA, Tie2 TEK receptor tyrosine kinase