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Table 3 A summary of studies comparing parameters of cardiac contraction between sexes

From: Estrogen regulation of cardiac cAMP-L-type Ca2+ channel pathway modulates sex differences in basal contraction and responses to β2AR-mediated stress in left ventricular apical myocytes

Species Heart preparation Contraction of female compared to male Ca2+transient ICaLdensity Stimulation frequency (Hz) Recording temperature External Ca2+concentration Ref.
Rat Whole ventricular myocytes Lower Lower Similar 1 37 °C 1.8 mM [5]
Rat Whole ventricular myocytes Lower Similar Similar 2–4 Hz 37 °C 1.8 mM [6]
Rat left ventricle myocytes Lower lower 1 Hz 25 °C 0.5–2 mM [40]
Rat skinned ventricular papillary muscle fiber Higher 0.5 Hz Room temp. 1.5 mM [26]
Rat Whole ventricular tissue Higher Higher 0.8 Hz 1 mM [27]
Rat skinned atrial fibers Higher 0.4 Hz 32 °C 1–7 mM [28]
B6SJLF1/J mice Whole ventricular tissue Similar Similar 2 Hz 37 °C 1 mM [38]
Female dogs Epicardial Cells, endocardium, mid-myocardium Higher 2 Hz 37 °C 2 mM [35]
Guinea-pigs Left ventricular myocytes Higher 0.5 Hz 37 °C 1 mM [36]
Rabbit Base left ventricular myocytes Higher 5 Hz   2.5 mM [32]