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Fig. 3 | Cell Communication and Signaling

Fig. 3

From: Estrogen regulation of cardiac cAMP-L-type Ca2+ channel pathway modulates sex differences in basal contraction and responses to β2AR-mediated stress in left ventricular apical myocytes

Fig. 3

Inhibition of cAMP breakdown by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) increased contraction amplitude and Ca2+ transient amplitude in both sexes and abolished the differences between them. a Basal cAMP levels among the groups and the effects of estrogen receptor agonists and antagonists on cAMP level (n = 5). b, Effect of IBMX on contraction amplitude in male and female (n = 5). c Effect of IBMX on Ca2+ transient amplitude. (n = 12 cells/6 mice). *P < 0.05, and **P < 0.01, &P < 0.05 vs OVX. All data are presented as mean ± S.E.M

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