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Table 1 Clinical correlation of hedgehog pathway with demographic and pathological variables in Pakistani breast cancer cohort

From: Involvement of hedgehog pathway in early onset, aggressive molecular subtypes and metastatic potential of breast cancer

Variable Total Mean ± SD
SHH p-value DHH p-value IHH p-value PTCH p-value SMO p-value GLI-1 p-value
Tumour 150 4.4 ± 3.3 < 0.0001 4.7 ± 3.5 < 0.0001 0.04 ± 0.2 < 0.0001 3.4 ± 3.1 < 0.0001 1.4 ± 2.1 0.61 3.8 ± 2.5 < 0.0001
Control 150 1.0 ± 0.9 1.0 ± 1.4 1.0 ± 1.1 1.0 ± 1.0 1.0 ± 1.3 1.0 ± 0.8
Disease onset age
 Age ≤ 45 years 76 5.6 ± 3.9 0.03 5.5 ± 4.2 0.04 0.2 ± 0.8 0.65 3.2 ± 3.1 0.26 1.9 ± 2.2 0.03 6.3 ± 4.5 0.03
 Age ≥ 45 years 74 4.2 ± 3.3 3.9 ± 2.9 0.04 ± 0.2 3.6 ± 3.0 1.2 ± 1.8 4.2 ± 2.7
Menopausal status
 Pre-Menopausal 80 6.8 ± 4.8 0.0065 5.6 ± 3.9 0.01 0.23 ± 0.8 0.45 0.2 ± 0.8 < 0.0001 2.8 ± 3.6 0.12 7.9 ± 4.3 < 0.0001
 Post-Menopausal 70 4.5 ± 3.5 3.9 ± 3.0 0.05 ± 0.2 3.9 ± 3.3 2.1 ± 3.1 3.9 ± 2.5
Laterality
 Right 75 4.2 ± 2.8 0.01 5.8 ± 4.0 0.001 0.2 ± 0.8 0.13 3.4 ± 2.9 0.97 2.5 ± 2.9 0.26 4.5 ± 2.9 0.02
 Left 75 6.1 ± 4.1 3.8 ± 3.0 0.1 ± 0.4 3.4 ± 3.2 2.1 ± 3.1 6.4 ± 4.5
Grade-wise distribution
 Grade I 14 3.5 ± 2.7 0.0001 3.4 ± 2.4 0.48 0.2 ± 0.9 0.2 2.9 ± 2.9 0.68 2.4 ± 3.5 0.11 2.8 ± 1.9 0.01
 Grade II 90 5.0 ± 3.8 4.9 ± 3.7 0.2 ± 0.6 3.4 ± 3.2 2.6 ± 3.2 3.2 ± 1.8
 Grade III 46 9.4 ± 6.5 4.9 ± 3.6 0.09 ± 0.3 3.6 ± 3.2 2.1 ± 3.6 5.6 ± 4.3
Stage-wise distribution
 Stage I 34 4.2 ± 3.3 < 0.0001 6.2 ± 3.6 < 0.0001 0.1 ± 0.5 0.03 3 ± 2.8 0.35 2.6 ± 3.3 0.09 6.7 ± 3.9 0.005
 Stage II 68 7.1 ± 4.1 8.3 ± 3.7 0.2 ± 0.7 3.3 ± 3.2 2.3 ± 2.7 7.2 ± 3.6
 Stage III 43 8.7 ± 3.9 8.6 ± 3.8 0.1 ± 0.2 3.6 ± 2.9 1.3 ± 1.7 7.9 ± 3.8
 Stage IV 5 14.6 ± 2.9 17 ± 2.2 0.06 ± 0.1 4.9 ± 2.8 2.3 ± 1.9 14.5 ± 3
Nodal Involvement
 N0 (none) 48 4.3 ± 3.2 < 0.0001 3.3 ± 2.8 0.01 0.2 ± 0.5 0.02 2.9 ± 3 0.34 2.6 ± 3.2 0.92 4.1 ± 2.7 0.003
 N1(lymph node < 4) 78 6.1 ± 4.1 5.8 ± 4.2 0.2 ± 0.7 3.6 ± 3.2 2.3 ± 3.3 5.9 ± 3.6
 N2(lymph node > 4) 24 8.2 ± 3.7 6.5 ± 4.4 0.006 ± 0 3.6 ± 2.8 2.7 ± 3.9 6.6 ± 3.9
Distant Metastasis
 M0 145 4.4 ± 3.4 0.0003 4.5 ± 3.4 0.0002 0.14 ± 0.6 0.09 3.3 ± 3.0 0.12 2.4 ± 3.4 0.34 3.8 ± 2.5 0.0002
 M1 5 14.6 ± 2.9 17 ± 2.2 0.06 ± 0.1 4.9 ± 2.8 2.3 ± 1.8 14.5 ± 3
Molecular subtypes
 HER-2 21 2.7 ± 2.4 < 0.0001 2.2 ± 1.1 < 0.0001 0.03 ± 0.1 0.73 4.3 ± 4.5 0.04 2.5 ± 3 0.63 3.7 ± 2.1 0.0007
 Luminal A 23 5.3 ± 2.8 1.9 ± 1.6 0.06 ± 0.2 2.1 ± 1.9 1.9 ± 2.7 2.7 ± 1.6
 Luminal B 79 6.7 ± 2.7 4.9 ± 3.5 0.1 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 3 2.6 ± 3.4 5.2 ± 2.9
 Triple Negative 27 5.9 ± 3.2 2.9 ± 2.6 0.3 ± 0.8 4.1 ± 3.8 1.8 ± 2.8 3.8 ± 2.5