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Table 1 Expression, ligands and signaling pathways of immune checkpoint molecules (based on [210] and [211])

From: T cell exhaustion: from pathophysiological basics to tumor immunotherapy

Immune checkpoint receptors (synonym) Cellular expression Ligand Intracellular motif Signaling pathways
CTLA-4 (CD152) T cells CD80, CD86 YxxM SHP2, LCK/ZAP70/PI3K
PP2A/AKT
PD-1 (CD279) T cells, B cells, DCs, NKT cells, Monocytes PD-L1, PD-L2 ITIM, ITSM SHP1, PI3K/AKT SHP2, LCK/ZAP70/PI3K, RAS
TIGIT (VSIG9, VSTM3) T cells, NK and NKT cells CD155, CD112 2 × ITIM NF-kB, PI3K and MAPK
LAG-3 (CD223) T cells, B cells, DC, NK cells MHCII KIEELE not determined
2B4 (CD244) T cells, NK cells, Monocytes, Basophiles CD2, CD48 ITSM not determined
BTLA (CD272) T cells, B cells, DC, Macrophages, Myeloid cells HVEM, CD80 ITIM, ITSM SHP1, PI3K/AKT
SHP2, LCK/ZAP70/PI3K
TIM3 (HAVCR2) T cells, B cells, NK cells, NKT cells, DCs, Macrophages Gal-9 Y235, Y242 PI3K
BAT3/LCK
VISTA (PD1-H) T cells, DCs, Macrophages, Monocytes, Neutrophils not determined not determined not determined
CD96 (Tactile) T cells, NK cells, Myeloid cells CD155 ITIM not determined