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Table 1 Protein and RNA composition of membrane-less organelles

From: Phase separation in biology; functional organization of a higher order

Organelle Biological role Protein Domains/Motifs RNA
Nucleolus Ribosome biogenesis in nucleus Fibrillarin RGG box [133] rRNA [8]
Nucleolin RRMs; RGG box [67]
Paraspeckles Regulation of gene expression in nucleus PSPC1 RRMs; Coil [2] ncRNA NEAT1 (Menε/β); Ctn [2, 19]
NONO/P54NRB RRMs; Coil [2]
SFPQ/PSF RRMs; Coil [2]
Nuclear speckles Regulation of gene expression via storage of splicing factors SRSF1 RRMs; RS [134] Poly(A)+ RNA; lncRNA MALAT1 [3, 134]
Cajal bodies Regulation of snRNP maturation Coilin Coiled-coil [23] snRNA; snoRNA [4, 135]
SMN Coiled-coil [23]
PML bodies Regulation of transcription and protein storage PML Coiled-coil [12] None [11, 29]
Germ granules Regulation of mRNA translation in the cytoplasm of germ cells GLH-1, GLH-2, GLH-4 FG [74] Developmentally regulated maternal mRNAs (nos-1, pos-1, mex-1, skn-1 , gld-2) [74, 136]
PGL-1, PGL-3 RGG [63]
DDX4 FG; RG [48]
LAF-1 RGG box [47]
P bodies mRNA processing and decay Pdc1 HLM; Coiled-coil [49] mRNA [31]
Dcp2 HLM [49]
Edc3 LSm; FDF [49]
Stress granules Storage of translationally stalled mRNA and proteins of the translational machinery FUS RRM; RGG box; [G/S]Y[G/S] [50, 137] Poly-(A)+ mRNA associated with PABP [30]
hnRNPA1 RRM; RGG box; [G/S]Y[G/S] [50]