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Table 2 Echocardiographic parameters

From: Succinate causes pathological cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through GPR91 activation

Parameter Control (n = 3) Succinate (n = 3) GPR91−/−(n = 4) GPR91−/− + suc (n =3)
Cardiac output (mL/min) 13.09 ± 1.19 13.02 ± 0.46 10.64 ± 0.55 9.18 ± 1.29
LV ejection fraction (%) 44.33 ± 0.35 57.37 ± 0.77* 38.17 ± 1.4 52.9 ± 4.7&
LV fraction shortening (%) 21.51 ± 0.23 29.86 ± 0.23* 18.05 ± 0,70 26.14 ± 2.97&
Interventricular septal     
Dimension (diastole, mm) 0.56 ± 0.02 0.54 ± 0.03 0.57 ± 0.05 0.58 ± 0.01
LVd (μL) 3.71 ± 0.03 3.54 ± 0.04 3.72 ± 0.1 3.25 ± 0.12&
LV posterior wall (systole, mm) 0.64 ± 0.09 1.05 ± 0.07* 0.80 ± 0.02 0.75 ± 0.12
LV systolic volume (μL) 32.65 ± 0.65 22.13 ± 0.87# 31.43 ± 3.44 17.76 ± 1.36##
Stroke volume (μl) 25.42 ± 1.01 30.56 ± 0.79 22.88 ± 1.22 20.67 ± 2.41
Heart rate (bpm) 501.2 ± 31 426.1 ± 13 470.7 ± 11 434.6 ± 11.6
  1. Echocardiographic measurements of cardiac parameters in mice following succinate intravenous injection for 5 days.
  2. * < 0.05 versus control.
  3. &p < 0.05 versus GPR91 −/−.
  4. #p < 0.01 versus control.
  5. ##p < 0.01 versus GPR91 −/−.