Toll-like receptor signaling shows deterministic formation and depletion waves. A) Schematic of TLR4 signaling. The dotted line between TLR4 and TRAM and the black lines indicate the prediction of novel intermediates  and crosstalk mechanisms , respectively. B) The western-blot activation profiles of IRF-3, JNK, p38 and NF-κB (degradation of IκBα) for LPS stimulation, and C) NF-κB, JNK and p38 profiles in wildtype or WT (black), TRAF6 KO (green), TRADD KO (orange) for poly (I:C) stimulation, show activation and deactivation following formation and depletion waves. A, B adopted from , and C from .