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Table 1 Aberrant regulation of Rho proteins in cancer.

From: Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

Rho proteins Mechanism of deregulation Tumor type
RhoA High protein levels,
high signalling activity
Liver [107], skin [108], colon [109], ovarian [110], bladder [111], gastric [112], esophageal squamous cell (SCC) [113], testicular [114], breast [109]
RhoB Overexpression or
downregulation
Breast (overexpression) [109], lung (downregulation) [151]
RhoC High protein levels,
high signalling activity
Melanoma metastases [119], breast [121], squamous cell (SCC) [122], pancreas [123], liver [124], ovarian [110], head and neck [120], prostate [126], non-small cell lung (NSCLC) [127], gastric cancer [125]
RhoH Rearrangement and mutations
(5' UTR)
non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and multiple myeloma [152]
Rac1 High protein levels,
high signalling activity
Testicular, [114]gastric [112], breast [136], squamous cell (SCC) [137]
Rac1B Alternative splicing Colon [148]; Breast [136]
Rac2 High protein levels Head [108] neck squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) [122]
Rac3 Hyperactive or overexpression Breast [22]