Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 3 | Cell Communication and Signaling

Figure 3

From: Rac and Rho GTPases in cancer cell motility control

Figure 3

Involvement of Rho proteins at different stages of tumor progression. A) Maintenance of normal epithelial cell polarity. B) Benign tumors: once a tumor is initiated, Rho proteins can contribute to tumor development by stimulating dedifferentiation, growth and loss of cell polarity. C) Locally invasive tumors: Rho proteins can contribute to tumor development by altering cell-cell and cell-matrix adhesion, Rho proteins allow tumor cells to become invasive. D) Metastasis to distant site: Rho and ROCK are required for tumor cells to cross endothelial cell layers. RhoC promotes expression of angiogenic factors, leading to an increase in vascularization of the tumor.

Back to article page