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Table 2 In vitro studies of C. jejuni translocation across polarized epithelial cell lines using transwell assaysa

From: Transmigration route of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized intestinal epithelial cells: paracellular, transcellular or both?

Applied cell model Time of cell differentiation/growth Confirmation of proper TJs before infection C. jejuni strains used Negative controls used Applied methods to investigate transmigration C. jejuni factors involved Host factors involved Proposed transmigration route TER values during transmigration References
Caco-2 10-14 days TER (300–500) 78–27, 81116, M129, F38011 E. coli DH5α TWA, TER, PIS, SEM, TEM NP NP Paracellular and transcellular Unchanged (within 6 h) [40]
Caco-2 NP NP 37 clinical isolates E. coli DH5α TWA, CAA, GPA, CTA NP NP Paracellular NP [36]
Caco-2 10-14 days NP 81116 E. coli DH5α TWA, TER, CAA, GPA, IB FlaA/B NP NP Unchanged (5 h) [37]
Caco-2 10-14 days TER (250) 6 clinical isolates E. coli DH5α TWA, TER, CPT NP NP Paracellular and transcellular Small drop of TER (from 250 to 200), but loss after 24 h [49]
Caco-2 7 days TER (430) 10 clinical isolates NP TWA, TER, CAA, GPA NP NP Paracellular and transcellular Changes were strain dependent (6 h) [38]
T84 NP NP 81–176, F38011 E. coli MRF TWA, CAA, GPA NP NP Paracellular NP [42]
Caco-2 7 days TER (>1000) 81–176, NCTC11168 NP TWA, SEM, TEM, GPA NP NP Paracellular and transcellular NP [39]
HCA-7, T84 8-10 days TER (400–550) 19 clinical isolates NP TWA, GPA, TEM, LDH, MF, IL-8, PGE2 NP NP Paracellular Unchanged (12 h) [50]
Caco-2 17 days TER (1056) R27456 E. coli DH5α TWA, GPA, EPA, PIS NP NP Transcellular Unchanged (48 h) [84]
T84, MDCK-I NP TER (400–500) NCTC11168, 81–176, TGH9011 NP TWA, PIS, GPA, EPA, TEM FlgF PI3-K Transcellular Unchanged (24 h), drop after 48 h [43]
T84 NP TER (values NP) 81–176, CHR213 E. coli HB101 TWA, PIS, IFM FlaA/B Cholesterol, caveolin Transcellular Unchanged (4 h) [85]
MKN-28 14 days TER (130–150) 81–176, NCTC11168 E. coli DH5α TWA, TER, CA, ECA, IB HtrA E-cadherin Paracellular Unchanged (24 h) [44, 45]
Caco-2 19 days TER (values NP) GB11, GB19 NP TWA, IFM, GPA Cst-II NP Transcellular NP [59]
  1. aAbbreviations: CAA (cell adhesion assay), CA (casein assay); CPT (cell permeability test using 14C-Inulin labelling); Cst-II (sialyltransferase); CTA (cytotoxic activity assay); ECA (E-cadherin cleavage assays), EPA (epithelial permeability assay); FlaA/B (flagellin genes A and B); FlgF (flagellar gene F); GPA (gentamicin protection assay); MF ([3H] mannitol flux); IFM (immunofluorescence microscopy); HtrA (high temperature resistant protein A, a serine protease); IB (immunoblotting ); IL-8 (IL-8 measurement); LDH (lactate dehydrogenase test); NP (not provided in the study); PGE 2 (prostaglandin E2 measurement by ELISA); PI 3-K (phosphoinositid-3-kinase); PIS (pharmacological inhibitor studies); SEM (scanning electron microscopy); TEM (transmission electron microscopy); TER (transepithlial electrical resistance measurement, values given in Ohms per cm2); TJ (tight junction); TWA (transwell assay).