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Table 1 Selected reports on observations of C. jejuni entering gut epithelial cells, underlying tissues or even other organs during infection in vivoa

From: Transmigration route of Campylobacter jejuni across polarized intestinal epithelial cells: paracellular, transcellular or both?

Host Host sample and infection characteristics C. jejuni strains and characteristics Applied methods Disease symptoms/ macroscopic observations Disease-associated molecular processes References
Human Colonic biopsies (taken from 22 naturally infected patients), 3–30 days after onset of symptoms Natural Cj strains SEM, IHC, IFM Acute infectious colitis with bloody diarrhea and Cj-positive stools; variation of IgA, IgM and IgG levels Massive infiltration of immune cells; marked distortion of crypt architecture; invasion of Cj into colonic epithelial cells, Goblet cells and lamina propria [22]
Hamster Golden Syrian hamsters (age NP), 12 females, infection period: 12 days Cj strain 4–82 (from human diarrheal stool) TEM Infection of ileum and cecum; diarrhea; intestinal and cecal abnormalities; 1 hamster died Microvilli and cytoplasmic lesions; penetration of Cj into lamina propria, some intra-cellular; swollen ER; enlarged mitochondria [24]
Piglets Newborn piglets (2–4 weeks old), 10 animals, infection periods: 3–6 days Cj strain M129 (campylobacteriosis patient) TEM, LM, IHC Bloody diarrhea; subacute, diffuse, mild to moderate, erosive colitis and typhlitis Gross lesions of large intestine (not small intestine); cell damage with disrupted microvilli, Cj detected within cells and in lamina propria [25]
Rabbits New Zealand White rabbits (7–9 weeks old), 8 animals, infection period: 18 h Cj strains L115, C119, O81 and P71(from inflammatory diarrhea) IHC, LFA, GM1-ELISA Gut tissue oedema, cell damage and submucosal bleedings Massive infiltration of immune cells; high concentrations of enterotoxin, recovery of live Cj from blood [26]
Monkeys Macaca mulatta (3.5 month old); 2 infant monkeys, infection period: 17 days Cj strain 78–37 (from human bloody diarrhea) TEM Colon damage and diarrhea Intracellular and extracellular Cj in mucosa and basal lamina; exfoliated epithelial cells; some with apoptotic signs or dilated ER [23]
Ferrets Mustela putoris furo (5.5-6 weeks old ferrets); 15 females, infection period: 1, 2, 3, 6 and 9 days Cj strain CG8421 (from human diarrheal stool); 81–176 (sequenced human isolate) CFU-D, IHC, TEM Acute infectious colitis with bloody diarrhea; Cj positive stools; variation of IgA-ASC, IgA, IgM and IgG levels Massive colonization of small and large intestine; infiltration of immune cells; Cj within or between enterocytes; recovery of live Cj from liver [27]
Mouse BALB/c, C57BL/6 and DBA/2 mice (10 week old, both sexes); infection course: 24 days Human Cj strains (from diarrheal stool) CFU-D, IHC None Cj spreading and tissue invasion, recovery of live Cj from liver and spleen [28]
Mouse Myd88−/− knockout mice (6–8 weeks old); infection period: 2, 4, 7, 9 and 14 days 81–176 CFU-D, ELISA, IB Persistent Cj colonization of the intestine (but not in Myd88+/+ positive mice) Impaired Erk activation and TNF-alpha/IL-6 cytokine production, recovery of live Cj from spleen, liver and mesenteric lymph nodes [29]
Chicken DeKalb X-L Leghorn chicks (1 day old), 170 animals, infection period: 14 days A.J. and E.L. (human isolates); Ch-1 (chicken isolate) CFU-D, SEM, IHC Bloody diarrhea in 5 out of 16 1-day old chicks (start on day 2–5, recovered after 14 days); no symtoms in 3-day old chicks Cj throughout the intestine; highest CFU in caecum and large intestine; both the upper and lower GI tract with inflammatory cells; Cj detected within cells and in lamina propria [31]
Chicken White Leghorn chicks (day of hatch); 41 animals, infection period: 14 days RM1221 CFU-D, SA, CVM None Jejunal atrophy but no neutrophil infiltration or inflammation in the intestine; recovery of live Cj from liver and spleen [30]
  1. aAbbreviations: ASC (antibody-secreting cells); CFU (colony forming units); CFU-D (CFU determination); Cj (Campylobacter jejuni); CVM (crypt-vilus measurements); ELISA (enzyme linked immunosorbent assay); ER (endoplasmatic reticulum); Erk (extracellular regulated kinase); GI (gastrointestinal); GM 1 (a specific ganglioside); IB (immunoblotting); IFM (immunofluorescence microscopy); IHC (immunohistochemistry); IgA (immunglobulin A etc.); IL-6 (interleukin-6); LFA (loop fluid analysis); LM (light miroscopy); Myd88 (myeloid differentiation factor 88); NP (not provided); SA (sucrase activity measurement); SEM (scanning electron microscopy); TEM (transmission electron microscopy); TNF-alpha (tumour necrosis factor alpha).