Experimental (A-C; ref ) and simulated (D-F) flash responses (A, B, D, E) and Pepperberg plots (C, F) showing reduced sensitivity and shorter saturation times in animals lacking Rec (B, E) compared to wild-type (WT) (A, D). Note the difference in time scale is due to species differences. Simulated stimulus intensities were adapted from Makino et al.  (see Methods). Simulated WT stimuli were 9.44, 16.48, 34.24, 59.92, 111.2, 194.4, 403.2, 705.6 and 1352 R* per flash (D). Simulated Rec−/− stimuli were 10.24, 17.92, 37.2, 65.12, 120.8, 438.4, 768, 1472, 2584, 5360 and 9360 R* per flash (E). Eliminating Rec activity results in only a slight decrease in saturation time across a range of saturating stimulus intensities compared to the significant shift seen in the experimental results (C, F; open circles: WT; stars: Rec−/−). (Panels A-C copyright © 2004 Makino et al.).