Low level palmitate treatment activates inflammatory cytokine & chemokine gene expression in muscle cells. L6 muscle cells were treated with 0.2 mM palmitate (PA), palmitoleate (PO) or BSA control for (A) 24 h or (B) at the times indicated. A) mRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR using primers for TNFα IL-6 and CCL2. B) mRNA expression was analyzed by qRT-PCR using primers for IL-6. Results are normalized to the reference gene hprt1 and then to the BSA control and reported as fold change ±SEM (n≥3), **p<0.01 vs BSA control (1-way ANOVA).